Graphene


Warning: file_put_contents(): Only 0 of 103036 bytes written, possibly out of free disk space in /home/swarmy/public_html/wp-includes/SimplePie/Cache/File.php on line 113

Warning: /home/swarmy/public_html/wp-content/cache is not writeable. Make sure you've set the correct relative or absolute path, and that the location is server-writable. in /home/swarmy/public_html/wp-includes/class-simplepie.php on line 1429

Graphene Image

In simple terms, graphene, is a thin layer of pure carbon; it is a single, tightly packed layer of carbon atoms that are bonded together in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice. In more complex terms, it is an allotrope of carbon in the structure of a plane of sp2 bonded atoms with a molecule bond length of 0.142 nanometres. Layers of graphene stacked on top of each other form graphite, with an interplanar spacing of 0.335 nanometres.

It is the thinnest compound known to man at one atom thick, the lightest material known (with 1 square meter coming in at around 0.77 milligrams), the strongest compound discovered (between 100-300 times stronger than steel and with a tensile stiffness of 150,000,000 psi), the best conductor of heat at room temperature (at (4.84±0.44) × 103 to (5.30±0.48) × 103 W·m−1·K−1) and also the best conductor of electricity known (studies have shown electron mobility at values of more than 15,000 cm2·V−1·s−1). Other notable properties of graphene are its unique levels of light absorption at πα ≈ 2.3% of white light, and its potential suitability for use in spin transport.

Bearing this in mind, you might be surprised to know that carbon is the second most abundant mass within the human body and the fourth most abundant element in the universe (by mass), after hydrogen, helium and oxygen. This makes carbon the chemical basis for all known life on earth, so therefore graphene could well be an ecologically friendly, sustainable solution for an almost limitless number of applications. Since the discovery (or more accurately, the mechanical obtainment) of graphene, advancements within different scientific disciplines have exploded, with huge gains being made particularly in electronics and biotechnology already.

The problem that prevented graphene from initially being available for developmental research in commercial uses was that the creation of high quality graphene was a very expensive and complex process (of chemical vapour disposition) that involved the use of toxic chemicals to grow graphene as a monolayer by exposing Platinum, Nickel or Titanium Carbide to ethylene or benzene at high temperatures. Also, it was previously impossible to grow graphene layers on a large scale using crystalline epitaxy on anything other than a metallic substrate. This severely limited its use in electronics as it was difficult, at that time, to separate graphene layers from its metallic substrate without damaging the graphene.

However, studies in 2012 found that by analysing graphene’s interfacial adhesive energy, it is possible to effectually separate graphene from the metallic board on which it is grown, whilst also being able to reuse the board for future applications theoretically an infinite number of times, therefore reducing the toxic waste previously created by this process. Furthermore, the quality of the graphene that was separated by using this method was sufficiently high enough to create molecular electronic devices successfully.

While this research is very highly regarded, the quality of the graphene produced will still be the limiting factor in technological applications. Once graphene can be produced on very thin pieces of metal or other arbitrary surfaces (of tens of nanometres thick) using chemical vapour disposition at low temperatures and then separated in a way that can control such impurities as ripples, doping levels and domain size whilst also controlling the number and relative crystallographic orientation of the graphene layers, then we will start to see graphene become more widely utilized as production techniques become more simplified and cost-effective.

Graphene In A Nutshell

Read my in depth look at graphene called ‘Graphene in A Nutshell’. It introduces, informs and tells the past, present and future of graphene. Read more >>

Properties Of Graphene

An explanation of the properties of graphene. Learn about its fundamental characteristics, electronic properties and optical properties. Read more >>

Graphene Applications And Uses

What are the uses and applications of graphene? How will it be used to change the world that we live in? Find out here. Read more >>

The Price Of Graphene

How much does graphene cost? And, what factors affect the price of graphene? Those questions are answered here. Read more >>

- – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – -

  • Fast, cheap method to make supercapacitor electrodes


    - Graphene News -- ScienceDaily
    Researchers have developed a fast, inexpensive method to make electrodes for supercapacitors, with applications in electric cars, wireless telecommunications and high-powered lasers.

  • Fluorine grants white graphene new powers


    - Graphene News -- ScienceDaily
    Fluorination of hexagonal boron nitride, a common insulator, turns it into a magnetic semiconductor. That may make the heat-resistant material suitable for electronics and sensors in extreme environments.

  • Signature analysis of single molecules using their noise signals


    - Graphene News -- ScienceDaily
    Unique noise signatures have been obtained from single molecules interacting with carbon nanotube-based electronic devices.

  • Clean water that's 'just right' with new sensor solution


    - Graphene News -- ScienceDaily
    Scientists combined basic research on an interesting form of carbon with a unique microsensor to make an easy-to-use, table-top tool that quickly and cheaply detects disinfection byproducts in our drinking water before it reaches consumers.

  • Harnessing hopping hydrogens for high-efficiency OLEDs


    - Graphene News -- ScienceDaily
    A novel design strategy has been revealed for efficient light-emitting molecules with applications in next-generation displays and lighting through renewed investigation of a molecule that slightly changes its chemical structure before and after emission.

  • Breakthrough in spintronics


    - Graphene News -- ScienceDaily
    It's ultra-thin, electrically conducting at the edge and highly insulating within – and all that at room temperature. Physicists have developed a promising new material.

  • Zero gravity: Graphene for space applications


    - Graphene News -- ScienceDaily
    Researchers are preparing for two exciting experiments in collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) to test the viability of graphene for space applications. The microgravity parabolic flight drop tower experiments will launch between November 6-17, 2017, testing graphene in zero-gravity conditions to determine its potential in space applications including light propulsion and thermal management.

  • A future without fakes thanks to quantum technology


    - Graphene News -- ScienceDaily
    Scientists have created unique atomic-scale ID's based on the irregularities found in 2-D materials like graphene. On an atomic scale, quantum physics amplifies these irregularities, making it possible to 'fingerprint' them in simple electronic devices and optical tags.

 

Leave a Reply