Graphene


Warning: file_put_contents(): Only 0 of 102104 bytes written, possibly out of free disk space in /home/swarmy/public_html/wp-includes/SimplePie/Cache/File.php on line 113

Warning: /home/swarmy/public_html/wp-content/cache is not writeable. Make sure you've set the correct relative or absolute path, and that the location is server-writable. in /home/swarmy/public_html/wp-includes/class-simplepie.php on line 1429

Graphene Image

In simple terms, graphene, is a thin layer of pure carbon; it is a single, tightly packed layer of carbon atoms that are bonded together in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice. In more complex terms, it is an allotrope of carbon in the structure of a plane of sp2 bonded atoms with a molecule bond length of 0.142 nanometres. Layers of graphene stacked on top of each other form graphite, with an interplanar spacing of 0.335 nanometres.

It is the thinnest compound known to man at one atom thick, the lightest material known (with 1 square meter coming in at around 0.77 milligrams), the strongest compound discovered (between 100-300 times stronger than steel and with a tensile stiffness of 150,000,000 psi), the best conductor of heat at room temperature (at (4.84±0.44) × 103 to (5.30±0.48) × 103 W·m−1·K−1) and also the best conductor of electricity known (studies have shown electron mobility at values of more than 15,000 cm2·V−1·s−1). Other notable properties of graphene are its unique levels of light absorption at πα ≈ 2.3% of white light, and its potential suitability for use in spin transport.

Bearing this in mind, you might be surprised to know that carbon is the second most abundant mass within the human body and the fourth most abundant element in the universe (by mass), after hydrogen, helium and oxygen. This makes carbon the chemical basis for all known life on earth, so therefore graphene could well be an ecologically friendly, sustainable solution for an almost limitless number of applications. Since the discovery (or more accurately, the mechanical obtainment) of graphene, advancements within different scientific disciplines have exploded, with huge gains being made particularly in electronics and biotechnology already.

The problem that prevented graphene from initially being available for developmental research in commercial uses was that the creation of high quality graphene was a very expensive and complex process (of chemical vapour disposition) that involved the use of toxic chemicals to grow graphene as a monolayer by exposing Platinum, Nickel or Titanium Carbide to ethylene or benzene at high temperatures. Also, it was previously impossible to grow graphene layers on a large scale using crystalline epitaxy on anything other than a metallic substrate. This severely limited its use in electronics as it was difficult, at that time, to separate graphene layers from its metallic substrate without damaging the graphene.

However, studies in 2012 found that by analysing graphene’s interfacial adhesive energy, it is possible to effectually separate graphene from the metallic board on which it is grown, whilst also being able to reuse the board for future applications theoretically an infinite number of times, therefore reducing the toxic waste previously created by this process. Furthermore, the quality of the graphene that was separated by using this method was sufficiently high enough to create molecular electronic devices successfully.

While this research is very highly regarded, the quality of the graphene produced will still be the limiting factor in technological applications. Once graphene can be produced on very thin pieces of metal or other arbitrary surfaces (of tens of nanometres thick) using chemical vapour disposition at low temperatures and then separated in a way that can control such impurities as ripples, doping levels and domain size whilst also controlling the number and relative crystallographic orientation of the graphene layers, then we will start to see graphene become more widely utilized as production techniques become more simplified and cost-effective.

Graphene In A Nutshell

Read my in depth look at graphene called ‘Graphene in A Nutshell’. It introduces, informs and tells the past, present and future of graphene. Read more >>

Properties Of Graphene

An explanation of the properties of graphene. Learn about its fundamental characteristics, electronic properties and optical properties. Read more >>

Graphene Applications And Uses

What are the uses and applications of graphene? How will it be used to change the world that we live in? Find out here. Read more >>

The Price Of Graphene

How much does graphene cost? And, what factors affect the price of graphene? Those questions are answered here. Read more >>

- – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – - – -

  • Toward mass-producible quantum computers


    - Graphene News -- ScienceDaily
    Mass-producible quantum computers are closer than ever, thanks to new research. This process for positioning quantum bits in diamond optical circuits could work at large scales, say scientists.

  • Magnetic switch turns strange quantum property on and off


    - Graphene News -- ScienceDaily
    A research team has developed the first switch that turns on and off a quantum behavior called the Berry phase. The discovery promises to provide new insight into the fundamentals of quantum theory and may lead to new quantum electronic devices.

  • Three-dimensional graphene: Experiment at BESSY II shows that optical properties are tuneable


    - Graphene News -- ScienceDaily
    An international research team has for the first time investigated the optical properties of three-dimensional nanoporous graphene at the IRIS infrared beamline of the BESSY II electron storage ring. The experiments show that the plasmonic excitations (oscillations of the charge density) in this new material can be precisely controlled by the pore size and by introducing atomic impurities. This could facilitate the manufacture of highly sensitive...

  • Graphene on silicon carbide can store energy


    - Graphene News -- ScienceDaily
    By introducing defects into the perfect surface of graphene on silicon carbide, researchers have increased the capacity of the material to store electrical charge. This result increases our knowledge of how this ultrathin material can be used.

  • Zap! Graphene is bad news for bacteria


    - Graphene News -- ScienceDaily
    Laser-induced graphene made from an inexpensive polymer is an effective anti-fouling material and, when charged, an excellent antibacterial surface, report scientists.

  • Let there be light: Controlled creation of quantum emitter arrays


    - Graphene News -- ScienceDaily
    Graphene Flagship research demonstrates large scale, fully integrable arrays of single photon quantum dots in layered materials, which may lead to hybrid on-chip photonics devices for networks and sensing. This method is transforming the way researchers work with transition metal dichalcogenide quantum dots.

  • Graphene-based sensor could improve evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of asthma


    - Graphene News -- ScienceDaily
    Scientists have created a graphene-based sensor that could lead to earlier detection of looming asthma attacks and improve the management of asthma and other respiratory diseases, preventing hospitalizations and deaths.

  • Graphene-nanotube hybrid boosts lithium metal batteries


    - Graphene News -- ScienceDaily
    Scientists have built high-capacity lithium metal batteries with anodes made of a graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid. The anodes quench the formation of damaging dendrites.

 

Leave a Reply